Paper 1: Human Coach Technology Reactance Factors and their Influence on End-Users' Acceptance of e-Health Applications
Abstract: Project e-VITA is a joined research force from Europe and Japan that examines various cutting-edge e-health applications for older adult care. Those specific users do not necessarily feel technology savvy or secure enough to open up for innovative home tech systems. Thus, it is essential to provide the support that is virtual and human beside each other. Human coaches will provide this support to fulfill this role as a mediator between the technological system and the end-user. Reactance towards the system from the mediator's role could lead to the system's failure with the end user, thus failing the development. The effect of technology reactance in the integration process of a technological system can be the decisive factor in evaluating the success and failure of a technological system. We used part-standardized, problem-centered interviews to understand the human coaches’ challenges. The sample included people who act as the mediator role between the user and the technological system in the test application in the study centers. The interviews focused on experienced or imagined hurdles in the communication process with the user and the mediator role as well as the later relationship dynamic between the mediator, end-user, and technological system. The described technological challenges during the testing phase led the human coaches to responsibility, diffusion and uncertainty within their role. Furthermore, they led to a feeling of not fulfilling role expectations, which in the long term could indicate missing self-efficacy for the human coaches. We describe possible solutions mentioned by the interviewees and deepen the understanding of decisive factors for sustainable system integration for e-health applications.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; technology reactance; human-machine-interface; technology mediator; technology leverage; human coach; digital health; e-health; virtual coach; active aging; healthy aging; healthcare information technology introduction